Dutta, Smita and Dwivedi, Ajay and Kumar, M. Suresh Use of water quality index and multivariate statistical techniques for the assessment of spatial variations in water quality of a small river. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 190 (12). p. 718. ISSN 0167-6369, ESSN: 1573-2959

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Rapid urban development has led to a critical negative impact on water bodies flowing in and around urban areas. In the present study, 25 physiochemical and biological parameters have been studied on water samples collected from the entire section of a small river originating and ending within an urban area. This study envisaged to assess the water quality status of river body and explore probable sources of pollution in the river. Weighted arithmetic water quality index (WQI) was employed to evaluate the water quality status of the river. Multivariate statistical techniques namely cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to differentiate the sources of variation in water quality and to determine the cause of pollution in the river. WQI values indicated high pollution levels in the studied water body, rendering it unsuitable for any practical purpose. Cluster analysis results showed that the river samples can be divided into four groups. Use of PCA identified four important factors describing the types of pollution in the river, namely (1) mineral and nutrient pollution, (2) heavy metal pollution, (3) organic pollution, and (4) fecal contamination. The deteriorating water quality of the river was demonstrated to originate from wide sources of anthropogenic activities, especially municipal sewage discharge from unplanned housing areas, wastewater discharge from small industrial units, livestock activities, and indiscriminate dumping of solid wastes in the river. Thus, the present study effectively demonstrates the use of WQI and multivariate statistical techniques for gaining simpler and meaningful information about the water quality of a lotic water body as well as to identify of the pollution sources.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Water Quality: Water Quality Index; Surface Water Pollution; Multivariate Statistical Techniques; Principal Component Analysis; Cluster Analysis
Subjects: Water Quality
Water Pollution
Water Treatment
Depositing User: Mr. RK Lohiya
Date Deposited: 13 Mar 2019 12:26
Last Modified: 13 Mar 2019 12:26
URI: http://neeri.csircentral.net/id/eprint/1194

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