Majumdar, Dipanjali and Ray, Sandipan and Chakraborty, Sucharita and Rao, P S and Akolkar, A B and Chowdhury, M and Srivastava, Anjali (2014) Emission, speciation, and evaluation of impacts of nonmethane volatile organic compounds from open dump site. Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 64 (7). pp. 834-845. ISSN 1096-2247 (Print) and 2162-2906 (Online)

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Surface emission from Dhapa, the only garbage disposal ground in Kolkata, is a matter of concern to the local environment and also fuels the issues of occupational and environmental health. Surface emission of the Dhapa landfill site was studied using a flux chamber measurement for nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs). Eighteen noncarbonyl volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and 14 carbonyl VOCs, including suspected and known carcinogens, were found in appreciable concentrations. The concentrations of the target species in the flux chamber were found to be significantly higher for most of the species in summer than winter. Surface emission rate of landfill gas was estimated by using two different approaches to assess the applicability for an open landfill site. It was found that the emissions predicted using the model Land GEM version 3.02 is one to two orders less than the emission rate calculated from flux chamber measurement for the target species. Tropospheric ozone formation has a serious impact for NMVOC emission. The total ozone-forming potential (OFP) of the Dhapa dumping ground considering all target NMVOCs was estimated to be 4.9Eþ04 and 1.2Eþ05 g/day in winter and summer, respectively. Also, it was found that carbonyl VOCs play a more important role than noncarbonyl VOCs for tropospheric ozone formation. Cumulative cancer risk estimated for all the carcinogenic species was found to be 2792 for 1 million population, while the total noncancer hazard index (HI) was estimated to be 246 for the occupational exposure to different compounds from surface emission to the dump-site workers at Dhapa. Implications: This paper describes the real-time surface emission of NMVOCs from an open municipal solid waste (MSW) dump site studied using a flux chamber. Our study findings indicate that while planning for new landfill site in tropical meteorology, realtime emission data must be considered, rather than relying on modeled data. The formation of tropospheric ozone from emitted NMVOC has also been studied. Our result shows how an open landfill site acts as a source and adds to the tropospheric ozone for the airshed of a metropolitan city.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: Air Quality
Air Pollution
Air Pollution Effects
Environmental Impact
Environmental Health
Depositing User: Dr Dipanjali Majumdar
Date Deposited: 21 Jan 2016 10:01
Last Modified: 21 Jan 2016 10:01

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