Rayalu, S S and Bansiwal, Amit and Meshram, S U and Labhsetwar, Nitin and Devotta, S (2006) Fly ash based zeolite analogues: versatile materials for energy and environment conservation. Catalysis Surveys from Asia, 10 (2). pp. 74-88. ISSN 1574-9266

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Fly ash is combustion residue from burning of pulverised coal in electric utility generating stations. The annual production of fly ash in India is around 100 MTPA and is responsible for several environmental hazards, which is quite well documented. There are stringent norms for its land disposal and hence utilisation of fly ash is imperative. Fly ash has more than 85% of SiO2 and Al2O3 content and is therefore a tailor made raw material for production of zeolite. An innovative process has been developed for synthesis of zeolites using fly ash as a substitute for conventional raw materials viz. sodium silicate and aluminate. The process consists of three major steps viz. fusion of caustic soda and fly ash for optimal extraction of silicate and aluminate, aging step which provides time for formation of nuclei and hydrothermal crystallization resulting in activation of nuclei into well defined crystals. Low temperature operation, simplicity of process and optimal recycling of unused reactants and process water are special features of these processes. Zeolites have high internal and external surface areas and also exhibit high exchange capacities, which makes them versatile materials for targeting wide range of pollutants, ranging from cationic to anionic and hydrophilic to hydrophobic molecules. The major uses of zeolites are in adsorption, ion exchange and as catalysts. The use of zeolites in environmental remediation is restricted due to procurement problem and prohibitive cost, which can be overcome by using low cost fly ash based zeolites (FAZs). The synthesis of FAZ-A and FAZ-Y and their modifications either by transition metal incorporation or by surfactant treatment for various environmental applications in air, water and soil remediation are addressed in this review.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Fly Ash; Zeolites; Catalyst; Heavy Metals; Soil Remediation
Subjects: Materials Science
Depositing User: Dr. Nitin Labhasetwar
Date Deposited: 23 Nov 2017 09:08
Last Modified: 23 Nov 2017 09:08
URI: http://neeri.csircentral.net/id/eprint/989

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